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The Scientific Rationale for Rescheduling Cannabis

Cannabis has long been classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, categorized alongside substances like heroin and LSD. This classification implies a high potential for abuse and a lack of accepted medical use. However, as scientific research on the therapeutic benefits of cannabis advances, there is a growing consensus among experts that its current Schedule I status may not accurately reflect its true potential and safety profile.

The Schedule I Dilemma: Schedule I substances are deemed to have a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use, and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Cannabis, despite its medicinal properties being recognized by a growing body of evidence, remains in this restrictive category. This classification has hindered research opportunities, limited medical access, and created legal challenges in various states where cannabis has been legalized for medical or recreational use.

Scientific Basis for Rescheduling:

  1. Medicinal Properties: A Rich Tapestry of Therapeutic Potential Cannabis, a botanical treasure trove, unfolds a myriad of medicinal properties through its cannabinoids, notably THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). A wealth of studies illuminates their efficacy in addressing various health conditions. These cannabinoids exhibit promising results in managing chronic pain, alleviating epilepsy symptoms, mitigating the impact of multiple sclerosis, and providing relief from the debilitating nausea associated with chemotherapy. The intricate dance of these compounds within the human endocannabinoid system unveils a profound potential for cannabis to become a cornerstone in the therapeutic landscape.
  2. Safety Profile: Navigating Safe Horizons Compared to counterparts in Schedules II and III, cannabis stands as a beacon of safety. A notable distinction arises in its absence from associations with lethal overdoses, positioning it as a remarkably safe option for medical applications. This safety profile underlines its potential to offer therapeutic benefits without the grave risks often associated with other controlled substances. This characteristic further supports the call for its rescheduling to align with its favorable risk-benefit profile.
  3. Research Opportunities: Unlocking the Secrets of Cannabis The current classification has cast a shadow over the comprehensive exploration of cannabis’s potential applications and risks. Rescheduling cannabis would act as a catalyst, propelling scientific inquiry into uncharted territories. This shift would pave the way for increased research opportunities, enabling scientists to unravel the intricate mechanisms of action within the plant. The knowledge gained could lead to the development of targeted medications, offering nuanced solutions for various health conditions.
  4. Public Opinion: A Resonant Shift in Perception The evolving landscape of public opinion mirrors a seismic shift in the perception of cannabis. A majority of Americans now lend their support to its medicinal use, recognizing its potential to enhance the quality of life for those grappling with health challenges. Rescheduling cannabis would not only acknowledge this changing sentiment but also provide a legal foundation for its integration into mainstream healthcare, aligning policy with the collective will of the people.
  5. Economic Impact: Nurturing Growth in the Green Economy Beyond its therapeutic potential, cannabis holds the promise of fostering economic growth. A move to reschedule would catalyze the expansion of a burgeoning industry. Job creation, tax revenue generation, and innovative developments in cannabis-related products stand as potential economic dividends. This economic impact could play a vital role in revitalizing communities and contributing significantly to the broader national economy.

Challenges and Considerations: While the scientific rationale for rescheduling is compelling, there are challenges and considerations to address. These include defining appropriate regulations, ensuring standardized product quality, and establishing guidelines for responsible use. Rescheduling Cannabis from Schedule I to III represents a rational response to the evolving scientific landscape surrounding this complex plant. This shift would not only reflect its proven medicinal properties and safety but also open the door to further research and development, fostering a more nuanced and evidence-based approach to Cannabis policy. As society continues to reappraise its stance on cannabis, a thoughtful and informed conversation on rescheduling is essential to navigate the intersection of science, medicine, and public policy.

Dr. Brandie M. Cross, Ph.D.

Dr. Brandie Makeba Cross, Ph.D., is a highly accomplished professional with a diverse background in academia, research, and cannabis science. As an Adjunct Professor in Biological Sciences at California State University, Los Angeles, and in Biochemistry at California Polytechnic University, Pomona, they have demonstrated excellence in teaching and curriculum development. Throughout their career, Dr. Cross has actively engaged in grant-funded research, authored impactful publications, and presented at prestigious conferences. Their commitment to education is evident through their roles as a mentor and their involvement in teaching and curriculum design, including the development of an Integrative Science course with The Honor’s College. They have also made significant contributions to the cannabis industry, designing educational modules for The Cannabis Academy and teaching courses for California’s Cannabis Social Equity candidates.
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Positive Participation in Cannabis Research

The sun rises high on the horizon, gleaming a silvery, slender streak of light into cold windows. Everyday another legalization effort is won and another project has begun. Another researcher arises, born anew into a world that finally accepts their fate. Legalizing Cannabis has opened the doors to our basement labs, our community programs and more. One-by-one Americans are enrolling and participating in Cannabis science research and that is good for everyone. Participating in cannabis research programs can offer several benefits:

  1. Advancing scientific knowledge: By participating in cannabis research, you contribute to expanding our understanding of the plant, its various compounds, and their effects on the human body. This knowledge can help researchers develop evidence-based treatments, interventions, and policies related to cannabis use.
  2. Shaping public health and policy: Research findings from cannabis studies play a crucial role in shaping public health guidelines and policies surrounding cannabis use. By participating, you can contribute to the evidence base that informs decision-making processes related to cannabis legalization, regulation, medical use, and public health initiatives.
  3. Potential therapeutic benefits: Cannabis and its cannabinoids have shown promise in various therapeutic areas, such as pain management, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and nausea reduction in chemotherapy patients, among others. By participating in research programs, you may gain access to potential treatments, innovative therapies, or interventions that could benefit your health condition or that of others.
  4. Personal involvement in cutting-edge research: Engaging in cannabis research allows you to actively participate in advancing scientific knowledge and innovation. You have the opportunity to collaborate with researchers, learn about the latest findings, and potentially contribute to improving healthcare outcomes and quality of life for individuals who benefit from cannabis-based treatments.
  5. Safe and regulated environment: Participating in research programs ensures that your involvement with cannabis-related substances is conducted in a controlled and monitored environment. This can provide reassurance regarding the quality, safety, and legality of the cannabis products used in the study.
  6. Access to expert guidance: When you participate in cannabis research, you typically have access to a team of healthcare professionals, researchers, and specialists who can provide guidance, support, and monitoring throughout the study. This can contribute to a better understanding of your health and well-being.

It’s important to consider that participating in research programs may also involve certain risks, and eligibility criteria and protocols may vary depending on the specific study. Therefore, it is crucial to consult with healthcare professionals, research institutions, or study coordinators to gather all the necessary information and make an informed decision based on your individual circumstances and preferences.

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THCA : Deep Herbal Healing Without the “High”

shallow focus photography of cannabis plant

About THCA :

THCA occurs when cannabigerol (CBG) is converted to THCA, before being decarboxylated to THC in the trichome of the Cannabis flower. THCA is a non-psychoactive, acidic precursor of THC  which alleviates: anxiety, depression, anorexia, pain, IBS/Crohn’s, spasticity, seizure (neuromuscular), nausea, and much more without the psychoactivity of THC. Studies have even shown tumor suppression of some cancers with THCA administration. In fact, recent studies have shown that THCA is far superior to CBD and THC for nausea and the cessation of vomiting. Although THC and THCA with CBD are always recommended for any serious cancer cannabinoid therapy, some cancers may be responsive to concentrated THCA medicines as well.

Scientific studies show..

THCA does not have any known psychoactive effects on humans  but  it has anti inflammatory, neuroprotective, antiemetic (anti-vomiting) and anti-prostate cancer effects. It inhibits COX  enzymes that are involved in inflammation in human colon cell cultures. THC-A has also been shown to decrease oxidative stress, caused by impaired mitochondria, a major mechanism in neural degeneration in mouse brain cell cultures. At our collective, we have tested our products vigorously and have seen a lot of promise for THCA. In prostate and lymphatic cancer patients, we have seen real progress with THCA-enriched therapies. We believe this is through complicated interactions with, not only cannabinoid receptors (such as CB1, CB2, GPR55, etc.) but the TRP family of calcium channels, due to the targeted effects we see and the types of clinical ailments we are able to alleviate.

The Experience

Taking THCA makes you feel energized, motivated and calm at the same time while relieving pain, and anxiety and increasing appetite. THCA is a great molecule for nausea as stated and pain, especially chronic pain. You really feel like a new person, thus many people take it in the morning. Personally, I take it in the morning for insomnia, because it helps me sleep much later in the evening and is very subtle and soothing- rather than taking a sleeping pill at night. Instead, I have energy, zest, and focus all day long and just as easily calm by night time and get into slumber. That is the other great thing – focus! THCA is terrific for people with ADH/D because it helps to focus the mind on the tasks at hand. THCA has been a miracle for so many patients including myself, it’s truly amazing. If you are one of those people who do not like the high of THC, THCA actually mitigates that anxiety, in case you need high THC therapy, and were unable to tolerate the “high”, THCA can alleviate that issue. Side note: I have also received word from some more adventurous souls, that THCA (at least our Purified Trichome Extract (THCA) is really good at relaxing people, physically when having a “bad trip” when using psychedelic substances.

Legality in the United States

THCA is not scheduled by the United Nations’ Convention on Psychotropic Substances. THCA is not scheduled at the federal level in the United States and is therefore legal to possess, buy, and sell. It is possible that THC-A could legally be considered an analog (of THC) although that is somewhat unlikely since it does not provide a high and THC does. If it were legally considered an analog, sales or possession with intent for human consumption could be prosecuted under the Federal Analogue Act. We actually inquired with FDA officials about the proposed legality of our product and were surprised and relieved that THCA seems to outright be OK nationally, so long as it doesn’t get anyone “high”.

THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) Chemical Structure

References & Resources

  1. Baker PB, Taylor BJ, Gough TA. (Jun 1981), “The tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid content of cannabis products”, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 33 (6): 369–72, doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1981.tb13806.x, PMID 6115009
  2. Sirikantaramas S, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Ishikawa Y, Wada Y, Shoyama Y, Taura F. (2004-09-17), “The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.”, Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (38): 39767–74, doi:10.1074/jbc.M403693200, PMID 15190053
  3. Moore C, Rana S, Coulter C. (2007-06-01), “Simultaneous identification of 2-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol in oral fluid”, J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 852 (1-2): 459–64, doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.02.016, PMID 17321807
  4. Taura F. (Jun 2009), “Studies on tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase that produces the acidic precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol, the pharmacologically active cannabinoid in marijuana”, Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 3 (3): 83–7, PMID 22495534
  5. Dussy FE, Hamberg C, Luginbühl M, Schwerzmann T, Briellmann TA. (2005-04-20), “Isolation of Delta9-THCA-A from hemp and analytical aspects concerning the determination of Delta9-THC in cannabis products”, Forensic Science International 149 (1): 3–10, doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.05.015, PMID 15734104
  6. Starks, Michael (1990). Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing, Potency. Ronin Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9141-7139-3.
  7. Ruhaak LR, Felth J, Karlsson PC, Rafter JJ, Verpoorte R, Bohlin L. (2011), “Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa”, Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34 (5): 774–8, doi:10.1248/bpb.34.774, PMID 21532172
  8. Moldzio R, Pacher T, Krewenka C, Kranner B, Novak J, Duvigneau JC, Rausch WD. (2012-05-07), “Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP(+) affected murine mesencephalic cultures”, Phytomedicine 19 (8-9): 819–24, doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.04.002, PMID 22571976
  9.  De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A., Moriello A.S., Iappelli M., Verde R., Stott C.G., Cristino L., Orlando P., and Di Marzo V. (2013-01-01), “Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms”, British Journal of Pharmacology 168 (1): 79–102, doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02027.x, PMC 357000
  10. Jung J, Meyer MR, Maurer HH, Neusüss C, Weinmann W, Auwärter V. (Oct 2009), “Studies on the metabolism of the Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques”, Journal of Mass Spectrometry 44 (10): 1423–33, doi:10.1002/jms.1624, PMID 19728318
  11. Hazekamp A, Bastola K, Rashidi H, Bender J, Verpoorte R. (2007-07-15), “Cannabis tea revisited: a systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113 (1): 85–90, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.05.019, PMID 17604926
  12. Radünz L, Westphal F, Maser E, Rochholz G. (2012-02-10), “THCVA-A – a new additional marker for illegal cannabis consumption”, Forensic Science International 215 (1-3): 171–4, doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.03.001, PMID 21454026
  13.  §1308.11 Schedule I.

The article originally published at in 2014

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Explore THC FREE Alternatives

Our comprehensive oil tincture guide is here! Learn why you should use different cannabinoids in combination or in enriched full spectrum formulations. While many cannabinoids have an overlapping effect on some issues, such as epilepsy, ADH/D, depression and anxiety, while others target new pathways that seem to be specific for issues arising from conditions outlined in the chart.

By knowing the differences between our formulations- our members are able to better select the formula that is right for them. Additionally, no natural/alternative/Cannabis-based treatment is “One Size-Fits All”, thus, it offers alternatives for treating common cannabis-responsive conditions.

Our new tincture guide is compiled and critically analyzed data over almost ten years of data from our lab -to help in suggesting specific alternatives for personal wellness.

BONUS GUIDE | Our Spa Products Guide

Our organic vegan spa products are more popular than ever! Offering real renewal and relief from everyday stress and overexertion.
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MEMBERS ONLY: Big Data at The Pot Lab

As many of you know, we collect data for learning more about the use of hemp as a medicinal food. Our main focus is the use of edible raw hemp, however we have expanded our collection to several other products which may be useful in your daily lives. Through our cooperative research program we have been able to collect data from all over the U.S., in order to further the scientific understanding of this plant.

We are proud to present a streamlined membership product data survey collection form which is now available to all consumers of our products. This online form will collect data from all members whom fill out the form and automatically analyze it through December 31, 2021. If you are a member of our cooperative, current or past, we encourage you to fill out the form in order to be included in our database. Thank you for being the best part of our cooperative!


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The Winning Formula: Golden Earth

Black in Biophysics Week yields honors and interest in raw hemp.

This year we celebrated #BlackInBiophysicsWeek with The Biophysical Society and were participants in the #BIBPS #ScienceShare campaign, where Black biophysicists share their work in 3 minutes or less, via social media! We shared our poster on Golden Earth which incorporates the structure-function relationships with the clinical responses to the use of Golden Earth. We won the first-place prize for our contribution!

Golden Earth is a unique terpenoid phenol and Omega-rich, oil blend which relieves multiple ailments.

This year we shared our Golden Earth Patient-Centered Data Poster, you can find here!

We would like to thank the Biophysical Society, our cooperative of patients, our cooperative organizers, and of course the wonderful graduate students and post docs who organized the online event. We hope that this will push for more normalization of research which is marginalised, done by marginalized people. For more info, check out the Biophysical Society website!

Biophysical Society Student Chapter at University of Toronto - Home |  Facebook
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Research Notes: Exploring Analgesic Properties of Minor Cannabinoids & Terpenes

NCCIH Workshop Summary

On a not-so-normal Friday morning, I scurried through my Los Angeles apartment, fumbling over my coffee and computer to get myself online to attend the NCCIH (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health) Workshop which I have been very excited about. However, it is 6:30 am in California and I can’t help but curse the fact I am even awake at this time. When I finally get the cat out of my chair, my coffee stirred and a pen in my hand, I am just in time for an excellent summary of the current state of research, not only the USA but also an insight into Canadian research and regulations. Unfortunately, I would be left with more questions than answers, as the day got longer.

Preclinical Data Shows Promise for Terpenes
The first session of the day was also the first “Data Blitz”, whereby researchers who have been awarded the grant are allowed to share their findings one year later. Awardees were given only a few minutes to take us through, often complex, sub-cellular targets, and interactions of terpenes and cannabinoids. One researcher, Cassandra L. Quave, Ph.D., of Emory University, compiled a compelling presentation of the possible use of terpenes in pain reduction, surprisingly, these were not terpenes from Cannabis, but Hops. In other talks, beta-caryophyllene (BCP) and Myrcene really showed promising results alone and when combined with most major cannabinoids. In the second “Data Blitz” session, awarded clinical studies, we got more of a feel for the high complexity and diversity of pain and inflammation, as well as the strong relationships between the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system,m (PNS), the immune system and human behavior. While some focused on opioid-sparing and reducing harm via the use of cannabinoids to decrease opioid-dependency, others focused on using cannabinoids with terpenes, to reduce different kinds of pain. Too many discussed Cannabis as an addictive drug which that showed their lack of real-world understanding and knowledge of actual patients who literally need their medication, not necessarily a “high”.

Cannabinoid & Terpene Research Complexities
As we moved into the keynote speaker, I could not help but think about how all of the scientific research on this plant is already riddled with difficulties, from purifying molecules to assessing human behavior, now we were going to talk about regulatory aspects, and frankly, at 10 am my time, I would have rather went back to bed. Regulation is a complex and often controversial topic in the world of Hemp/Cannabis, so many of us would rather not; This time was different, I was curious. Mark A. Ware, M.Sc., Chief Medical Officer, of Canopy Growth Corporation highlighted the history and progress of Canadian Cannabis research, surprisingly also highlighting the social injustices, along the way. While oppressive (often Capitalistic) systems remain a barrier to research for people of color, there were no real solutions offered, which was disappointing. Social equity is not gained by using the same oppressive system to mandate mentions and possible representation- it requires a new system altogether; Many are not ready for that conversation, they just want to nod their head and agree without offering our communities the power (and capital) that they hoard. However, it did lead us, perfectly into the ridiculous regulatory bodies and research management of cannabinoid research in the USA.

A Message From The System
We couldn’t conclude this whole symposium without a whole session dedicated to regulation, the FDA, and the DEA; I mean, we cannot have STEM PhDs getting arrested as drug dealers, right? So here we go, the DEA and FDA would like to take the time to let us know that, unless we fill out hundreds of pages of paperwork and pay through the nose, our research is somehow invalided and possibly illegal. While they act nice and sincere as if they care about the sick; It becomes increasingly obvious that they want your name on a list and to control the supply of Cannabis for research. I disagree – we should all look into our own, specialized strains and the strains that are actually being used by actual patients because the government’s strains (those made available through the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a.k.a. NIDA) strains are old, some are even weird phenotypes (such as leaves that have white stripes, lacking chlorophyll in certain places of the water leaves), and more so, those strains are not representative of the Cannabis’ potential in the post-prohibition era. Additionally, the techniques used in much commercial Cannabis grows and even research labs, to grow medical Cannabis are far more reproducible and sophisticated than the government could ever be, due to the same regulations they promote, enthusiastically. So while the panel included many open-minded scientific researchers from various NIH Centers, the entire scientific excitation was constantly overshadowed by the mentions of obsessively long and expensive amounts of paperwork that we may or may not need. Who knows?

Medical Patients Still Left Behind.
Thanks to the many reasons mentioned here, we are still failing medical Cannabis patients in the USA. The country doesn’t need or want more regulation, as we exponentially legalize Cannabis, state-by-state. Over 60% of Americans support full decriminalization because this is a plant, and there are many more harmful plants that exist in our society with little to no regulation. While some researchers poised themselves as warriors for patients, the regulatory bodies ensured us that the process was hard and we will not be able to easily go through the said process, simply with a fantastic proof-of-concept. Additionally, the regulatory panel confirmed bias towards this plant, as did some researchers. The repeated “Cannabis-dependency” phrase had users of medical Cannabis, rolling their eyes in complete disgust. Until the highest regulatory body is actually run by medical Cannabis patients- we will continue to see these absolute circuses of judgemental, colonialist-centered minds around the Cannabis research field. In the future, I hope the NIH will focus on recruiting more nonprofits and private organizations that are community-led organizations (especially those of us whom are Black/Indigenous and working directly with Black and Indigenous patients) for this grant and offer us more support, in the form of guidance, subsidies and partnerships, such that we can take real power by changing the system, fundamentally. Anything else is the perpetuation of the oppressive colonialist ideals that got us here and further social marginalization of those most affected by prohibition, by upholding a system that has failed to recognize when its time has passed.

-Dr. Brandie Makeba Cross, PhD

Interested in learning more about our fight for the legitimization of cannabinoids and terpenes?
Click here to check out our Education section!

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Plant-Powered Futures

5 Hot Topics in Plant-Based Research

As we look into an unsure future, scientists seek out guidance from the plant world to create better, sustainable solutions to modern problems. As the number of labs engaging in sustainable biomedical and biomaterials research, double, we see five areas where botany is leading the way in discovery.

1. Terpenes and Trichomes

The popularity of essential oils in recent years revolves around a chemistry particular to fragrant plants and herbs. Terpenes are organic compounds that are responsible for the odors, and flavors of essential oils. In the case of sages, for example, two different types of leaf outgrowths, called trichomes, contain a plethora of terpene compounds that give it its distinct taste and smell. These oils are often used to flavor natural products and add an aromatherapeutic smell to others. Some essential oils, such as clove, are still used today in modern dentistry and others are being researched for their anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. In fact, one of our favorite products, Sympath, contains bark essential oils, noted for their pain and inflammation relieving properties. There are thousands of these novel compounds available from plants, which creates a vast field of biomedical research that has room for everyone.

2. Waxes & Fats

Many of the same, very pungent plants, also contain a good amount of oils, fats, and waxes. In this modern ecological climate, these materials can be the answer to eliminating petroleum-derived plastics from all markets. The relative availability of these compounds is very high in plants like hemp, which is also very easy to grow at density. Hemp plastics have been showcased through products like Hempcrete, a concrete substitute made entirely of hemp fiber and waxes. Which leads to our next hot topic, fiber, and materials made from plants!

3. Fiber & Materials

This one is really a return to the past, as most rope and clothing fibers were always made with natural materials from plants such as cotton, hem p and bamboo. Recently, many have also returned to these forms of materials for a more sustainable future. Bamboo has received tons of attention, due to its ability, much like hemp to grow extremely dense with little to no carer, or nutrients. Additionally, flax and other plant fibers are, more and more, becoming centered in material research for their strength and resilience.

4. Agriculture & Horticulture

Food is an important aspect of living in a society, only second to [potable water. For that reason, agriculture is always trying to create more for less when it comes to food production. One of the most popular fields, in fact for many years now, have been vegan-centered agriculture, centered around the production of high protein plants such as soy. Due to the environmental damage and high investment in growing soy, scientists constantly look to other sources of vegan protein. Additionally, as we grow as a global population, high-density forms of agriculture such as aeroponics and hydroponics are extremely popular fields of study. If you are a meat-eater or pescatarian, you may be interested in aquaponics, whereby a large fish or shellfish aquarium is used to fertilize your hydroponic vegetables via a cyclic system; This system grows both animal and vegetable protein simultaneously and a can feed a family of four with as little as 100 square feet of garden/workspace.

5. Vegan Diet & Social Changes

Vegans and vegetarians have grown exponentially in the last decade, growing 94.4% between 2011-2016. Today, scientists in the industry have opened entirely new avenues of food science research, as stated before, searching for elements of diet in the plant kingdom. Society has moved away from meat-based meals with more and more Americans reporting replacing at least one meal per week with a completely plant-based menu. With the rise in vegan and vegetarian diets, there comes a higher demand for meat replacements which are both sustainable and healthy. Jackfruit, cashew cheeses and other alternatives are constantly being honed into artificial beef and chicken, Additionally, grain proteins and other alternatives are always under research for new textures and flavors for meatless foods.

Overall- the world is changing quickly but in some ways, it is returning to the past where humans engaged with the planet in a more sustainable way. Ecological and botanical laboratories around the world are looking to the plant kingdom to broaden the areas where we can be plant reliable rather than relying on petroleum-based plastics and synthetic oils. For this reason, scientists are optimistic about a future, plant-centered paradigm.